martes, 7 de junio de 2011

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura - Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.1-10.6

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura

Chapter Ten: Marriage with Śrī Lakṣmīpriyā

Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura

This chapter describes Śrī Viśvambhara’s scholastic pastimes in the assembly of Gaṅgādāsa Paṇḍita, His exchange of joking words with Murāri Gupta, His marriage with Lakṣmīdevī, the daughter of Vallabhācārya, and Śacīdevī’s experience of various opulences in her house after the arrival of her daughter-in-law.

After finishing His morning duties, Nimāi Paṇḍita and other students came and sat in Gaṅgādāsa Paṇḍita’s classes and debated with each other. Those who did not want to study under Nimāi were not supported by Him; rather, He showed them the bad results of studying independent of His guidance. Observing that Murāri Gupta was not studying under His guidance, Nimāi once jokingly told him that it was better for him to treat patients than to study grammar. In this way He tried to arouse his anger. Rather than becoming angry, Murāri, who is a plenary portion of Rudra, challenged Nimāi to test his knowledge. The debate between the Lord and His servant began.

The Lord was greatly pleased to hear the explanations of Murāri, who by the Lord’s mercy was most learned, and placed His lotus hand on the body of Murāri. At that time Murāri’s body was filled with ecstasy and he thought:

“Such extraordinary knowledge is not possible for an ordinary human being. There is no one in all of Navadvīpa as intelligent as He.”

He then said:

“O Ṭhākura, now I will study only under You.”

After sporting in this way, Nimāi went to take bath in the Ganges with His companions and then returned home. Nimāi Paṇḍita and His students established a school in the Caṇḍī-maṇḍapa in the courtyard of the fortunate Mukunda Sañjaya, the resident of Navadvīpa. There Nimāi displayed various pastimes such as establishing His own explanations and refuting other’s explanations. While teaching in this way, Nimāi would proudly boast about His mastery of learning in the following way:

“I see that in Kali-yuga those who are devoid of any knowledge of sandhi, or joining words, pass as Bhaṭṭācāryas. At present there is no scholar within Navadvīpa who can answer My challenge.”

Meanwhile, considering that Nimāi had attained marriageable age, mother Śacī constantly thought about getting Him married. One day, by providence, Lakṣmī-devī, the personification of the goddess of fortune and daughter of Vallabhācārya, who hailed from a pure cultured brāhmaṇa family, met her Lord, Gaura-Nārāyaṇa, while taking bath in the Ganges and offered obeisances to His lotus feet within her mind. By the will of the Lord, that very day Śrī Vanamālī, a brāhmaṇa matchmaker resident of Navadvīpa, proposed to mother Śacī the marriage of Nimāi with Lakṣmī-devī, the daughter of Vallabha. Not getting any special attention or hope of marriage from mother Śacī, the brāhmaṇa was returning home disappointed when he met Nimāi on the way. After understanding everything from the brāhmaṇa, Nimāi indicated to His mother His consent for the marriage.

The next day mother Śacī called that brāhmaṇa and told him to arrange the marriage as soon as possible. The brāhmaṇa happily and immediately went to the house of the bride and informed her family about the consent of the groom’s family, upon which Śrī Vallabhācārya also jubilantly consented, but he declared that due to poverty he was not able to give anything more than five haritakīs as dowry. With the agreement of both the bride and groom’s sides, an auspicious day was selected. One day before the marriage, Vallabhācārya came to Nimāi’s house and at an auspicious moment executed the rituals meant to be performed with one’s son-in-law before marriage. Thereafter, other auspicious Vedic and common rituals were duly performed. On the day of the marriage, at the auspicious time of go-dhūli, or dusk, Nimāi Paṇḍita with His companions arrived at the house of Vallabha and duly accepted the hand of Lakṣmī-devī.

The next evening Nimāi returned home with Lakṣmī-devī. Mother Śacī, the mother-in-law of Lakṣmī, along with other brāhmaṇas’ wives, welcomed her daughter-in-law home. From that day on, mother Śacī observed various opulences and wealth such as extraordinary effulgences and fragrances and became overjoyed on understanding that her daughter-in-law was none other than Kamalā, or Lakṣmī. Due to the presence of Śrī Gaura-Nārāyaṇa, the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha, and His internal potency, Śrī Ramā, who is non-different from Śrī Lakṣmī, the house of mother Śacī manifest as Vaikuṇṭha, the abode of pure goodness. Yet at that time, by the supreme will of the Lord, no one could understand the covered pastimes of the Lord.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.1

jaya jaya gauracandra mahā-maheśvara
jaya nityānanda-priya nitya-kalevara


All glories to Śrī Gauracandra, the Lord of all lords! All glories to Śrī Nityānanda’s beloved Lord, who possesses an eternal form.


The word nitya-kalevara refers to the sac-cid-ānanda form of the Supreme Lord, Śrī Gaurasundara. Although His form is eternal, in order that it may not be perceived as temporary and perishable, it has been described here as eternal in accordance with the readers’ highly intellectual understanding that there is no difference between the holy name and the Lord. Within the gross body of the conditioned soul is his subtle body, and within the gross and subtle  body is the liberated spirit soul, of whom Śrī Nityānanda is the source, and His object of ten varieties of service, Śrī Govinda-mohinī along with Her worshipable Lord, Śrī Govinda, are the objects of five types of pure devotional service. Therefore the philosophy of distinguishing between the body and owner of the body of the living entities, who are controlled by māyā, to be applicable to the Supreme Lord, who controls māyā, is completely prohibited. In the subtle heavenly planets, the bodies of the demigods consist of gross knowledge, and Lord Viṣṇu is present within the bodies of the subordinate demigods as the controller. The supreme worshipable Lord of such controllers is Śrī Gaurasundara, who is the combined form of Śrī Rādhā-Govinda.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.2

jaya śrī-govinda-dvāra-pālakera nātha
jīva-prati kara, prabhu, śubha-dṛṣṭi-pāta


All glories to the Lord of Govinda the doorkeeper. O Lord, please glance mercifully on the living entities.


Śrī Govinda was the doorkeeper of Śrī Viśvambhara. Govinda guarded the doors of Viśvambhara’s house. (See Caitanya-bhāgavata, CB Ādi-khaṇḍa  11.39-40, 13.2; CB Madhya-khaṇḍa  6.6, 8.114, 13.338, 23.152, 451; and CB Antya-khaṇḍa  1.52, 2.35, 7.5, 8.58, 9.195-196.)

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.3

jaya jaya jagannātha-putra vipra-rāja
jaya hau to’ra yata śrī-bhakta-samāja


All glories to Jagannātha’s son, the king of the brāhmaṇas. All glories to all of Your devotees.


The phrase śrī-bhakta-samāja is explained as follows:

Vrajendra-nandana Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the only worshipable Lord. That Supreme Lord, in His two forms as viṣaya and āśraya, the worshipable and the worshiper, is the worshipable object of all His subordinates. The viṣaya-vigraha, or object of worship, who is the Lord of the goddess of fortune, and the āśraya-vigraha, or abode of worship, who is the goddess of fortune, are both the objects of service for Their devotees. The devotees’ favorable cultivation of service towards their worshipable object is called bhakti, or devotional service. The servants of the viṣaya and āśraya are known as bhaktas. They are many, so collectively they are called bhakta-samāja. Under the categories of six opulences, various spiritual splendors are present in this bhakta-samāja. That is why the devotees have been described as Śrī-bhakta-samāja. All the devotees who are under the shelter of the energetic Lord’s energy try to please their worshipable Lord in various ways.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.4

jaya jaya kṛpā-sindhu kamala-locana
hena kṛpā kara,—tora yaśe rahu mana


All glories to the lotus-eyed Lord, who is an ocean of mercy. O Lord, please bless me that my mind may be absorbed in Your glories.


When the living entities’ highest spiritual propensities are engaged in the service of the Supreme Lord, who is full in six opulences, there is no inconvenience for them. When a living entity becomes greedy for objects not related to the Lord, he loses his opulences and, being disturbed by his restless mind, he furthers his conditional life. That is why the author, with a desire to be attracted to the Supreme Lord, is hereby praying for His mercy.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.5

ādi-khaṇḍe śuna, bhāi, caitanyera kathā
vidyāra vilāsa prabhu karilena yathā


My dear brothers, please listen to the topics of Śrī Caitanya in this Ādi-khaṇḍa, wherein the description of the Lord’s scholastic pastimes are found.


The words vidyāra vilāsa are explained as follows:

The conditioned soul in this material world is infected with nescience. In other words, he is born ignorant of his and other’s constitutional position. When the aspect of spiritual knowledge that is part of the conditioned soul’s constitution is unmanifest, his state is known as nescience, or ignorance. And the awakening and development of spiritual propensities by eradicating the absence of knowledge of the Absolute Truth is called vidyā, or knowledge. In other words, the awakening of one’s spiritual propensities by a learned person is known as the achievement of spiritual knowledge. The awakening of other’s spiritual propensities, which benefits self-realised persons in various ways, is known as vidyāra vilāsa. Under the shelter of nescience, or ignorance, the living entities become illusioned or bewildered—this is the opposite propensity from spiritual knowledge. When on the strength of this propensity and with the help of sensual knowledge the conditioned souls attempt to advance through the ascending process, they reveal their ignorance to learned persons. Śrīman Mahāprabhu also manifested such vidyāra vilāsa pastimes for the benefit of the entire world and thus delivered the living entities from the clutches of nescience.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 10.6

hena-mate navadvīpe śrī-gaurasundara
rātri-dina vidyā-rase nāhi avasara


In this way Śrī Gaurasundara engaged day and night in His studies while residing in Navadvīpa.

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