jueves, 2 de junio de 2011

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura 9.37-9.44

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura

Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.37

viṣṇu-māyā-mohe keha lakhite nā pāre
nityānanda-saṅge saba bālaka vihare


Due to the influence of Viṣṇu’s illusory energy, no one could recognize Nityānanda as He enjoyed pastimes with His friends.


The word lakhite comes from the word lakhā (used in ancient Bengali poems), which is derived from the Sanskrit verb lakṣa, meaning “to watch” or “to see.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.38

madhupurī raciyā bhrameṇa śiśu-raṅge
keha haya mālī, keha mālā pare raṅge


The children arranged a city of Mathurā and then wandered through its streets. Someone played the role of a gardener, and someone accepted a flower garland from him.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.39

kubjā-veśa kari’ gandha pare tā’ra sthāne
dhanuka gaḍiyā bhāṅge kariyā garjane


Someone dressed as Kubjā and sandalwood pulp was accepted from her. A large bow was made and they all shouted in joy when it was broken.


Madhupurī (Mathurā) was previously the residence of the demon Madhu. His son, Lavaṇāsura, was killed by Śatrughna in Tretā-yuga.
The words kubjāra sthāne gandha pare—“accepting sandalwood pulp from Kubjā” are explained in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.42.3-4) as follows:

“Kubjā said,

‘Who else but You two deserve my sandalwood pulp?’

Saying this, Kubjā smeared generous amounts of sandalwood pulp on both Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma.”

The meaning of the second line of this verse is found in the following words from the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.42.17-18):

“Easily lifting the bow with His left hand, Lord Kṛṣṇa strung it in a fraction of a second as the King’s guards looked on. He then powerfully pulled the string and snapped the bow in half, just as an excited elephant might break a stalk of sugar cane. The sound of the bow’s breaking filled the earth and sky in all directions. Upon hearing it, Kaṁsa was struck with terror.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.40

kuvalaya, cāṇūra, muṣṭika-malla māri’
kaṁsa kari’ kāhāre pāḍena cule dhari’


They enacted the pastimes of killing the Kuvalaya elephant and the wrestlers, Cāṇūra and Muṣṭika. Thereafter Kaṁsa was grabbed by the hair and thrown to the ground.


The word kuvalaya refers to a king of elephants named Kuvalayāpīḍa, who on the order of Kaṁsa was stationed near the wrestling arena to kill Kṛṣṇa. In the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.43.13-14) it is stated:

“The Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, killer of the demon Madhu, confronted the elephant as he attacked. Seizing his trunk with one hand, Kṛṣṇa threw him to the ground. Lord Hari then climbed onto the elephant with the ease of a mighty lion, pulled out a tusk, and with it killed the beast and his keepers.”

Cāṇūra is one of the wrestlers appointed by Kaṁsa to kill Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa. It is stated in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.44.22-23):

“No more shaken by the demon’s mighty blows than an elephant struck with a flower garland, Lord Kṛṣṇa grabbed Cāṇūra by his arms, swung him around several times and hurled him onto the ground with great force. His clothes, hair and garland scattering, the wrestler fell down dead, like a thunderbolt.”

Muṣṭika is one of the wrestlers appointed by Kaṁsa to kill Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa. In the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.44.24-25) it is stated:

“Similarly, Muṣṭika struck Lord Balabhadra with his fist and was slain. Receiving a violent blow from the mighty Lord’s palm, the demon trembled all over in great pain, vomited blood and then fell lifeless onto the ground, like a tree blown down by the wind.”

The word malla, or mall (“to hold”), means “soldier,” “wrestler,” or “champion.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.41

kaṁsa-vadha kariyā nācaye śiśu-saṅge
sarva-loka dekhi’ hāse bālakera raṅge


After killing Kaṁsa, the Lord danced with His friends in such a way that everyone watching began to laugh.


The phrase kaṁsa-vadha—“killing Kaṁsa” is described in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.44.34, 36-37) as follows:

“As Kaṁsa thus raved so audaciously, the infallible Lord Kṛṣṇa, intensely angry, quickly and easily jumped up onto the high royal dais. Lord Kṛṣṇa, whose fearsome strength is irresistible, powerfully seized the demon just as the son of Tārkṣya might capture a snake. Grabbing Kaṁsa by the hair and knocking off his crown, the lotus-naveled Lord threw him off the elevated dais onto the wrestling mat. Then the independent Lord, the support of the entire universe, jumped onto the King. As a result Kaṁsa lost his life.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.42

ei-mata yata yata avatāra-līlā
saba anukaraṇa kariyā kare khelā


In this way Nityānanda and His friends imitated the pastimes of the various incarnations.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.43

kona-dina nityānanda haiyā vāmana
bali-rājā kari’ chale tāhāna bhuvana


One day Nityānanda dressed like Vāmana and went to cheat Bali Mahārāja out of his kingdom, which covered the three worlds.


The word chale means “to deceive” or “to cheat.” The word bhuvana refers to the three planetary systems. For a description of how Vāmana cheated Bali Mahārāja out of the three worlds, one should read the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, Eighth Canto, Chapters 18 through 23.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.44

vṛddha-kāce śukra-rūpe keha mānā kare
bhikṣā lai’ caḍe prabhu śeṣe tā’na śire


Someone played the role of the aged Śukrācārya, who forbid Bali from giving the three steps. After accepting the gift, the Lord placed His last step on the head of Bali.


The word vṛddha-kāce means “acting or dressing like an old man.”

The word mānā is formed by the combination of mā (indicating “to show respect”) and nā, or “not and thus means “prohibiting” or “forbidding.”

For a description of Śukrācārya’s prohibition to Bali Mahārāja, one should see Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (8.19.30-43):

“Śukrācārya said:

‘O son of Virocana, this brahmacārī in the form of a dwarf is directly the imperishable Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu. Accepting Kaśyapa Muni as His father and Aditi as His mother; He has now appeared in order to fulfil the interests of the demigods. You do not know what a dangerous position you have accepted by promising to give Him land. I do not think that this promise is good for you. It will bring great harm to the demons. This person falsely appearing as a brahmacārī is actually the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who has come in this form to take away all your land, wealth, beauty, power, fame and education. After taking everything from you, He will deliver it to Indra, your enemy. You have promised to give Him three steps of land in charity, but when you give it He will occupy the three worlds. You are a rascal! You do not know what a great mistake you have made. After giving everything to Lord Viṣṇu, you will have no means of livelihood.

How then shall you live?

Vāmanadeva will first occupy the three worlds with one step, then He will take His second step and occupy everything in outer space, and then He will expand His universal body to occupy everything.

Where will you offer Him the third step?

You will certainly be unable to fulfil your promise, and I think that because of this inability your eternal residence will be in hell. Learned scholars do not praise that charity which endangers one's own livelihood. Charity, sacrifice, austerity and fruitive activities are possible for one who is competent to earn his livelihood properly. [They are not possible for one who cannot maintain himself.] Therefore one who is in full knowledge should divide his accumulated wealth in five parts—for religion, for reputation, for opulence, for sense gratification and for the maintenance of his family members. Such a person is happy in this world and in the next.

One might argue that since you have already promised, how can you refuse?

O best of the demons, just take from me the evidence of the Bahvṛca-śruti, which says that a promise is truthful preceded by the word oṁ and untruthful if not. The Vedas enjoin that the factual result of the tree of the body is the good fruits and flowers derived from it. But if the bodily tree does not exist, there is no possibility of factual fruits and flowers. Even if the body is based on untruth, there cannot be factual fruits and flowers without the help of the bodily tree. When a tree is uprooted it immediately falls down and begins to dry up. Similarly, if one doesn't take care of the body, which is supposed to be untruth—in other words, if the untruth is uprooted—the body undoubtedly becomes dry. The utterance of the word oṁ signifies separation from one's monetary assets. In other words, by uttering this word one becomes free from attachment to money because his money is taken away from him. To be without money is not very satisfactory, for in that position one cannot fulfil one's desires. In other words, by using the word oṁ one becomes poverty-stricken. Especially when one gives charity to a poor man or beggar, one remains unfulfilled in self-realization and in sense gratification. Therefore, the safe course is to say no. Although it is a falsehood, it protects one completely, it draws the compassion of others toward oneself, and it gives one full facility to collect money from others for oneself. Nonetheless, if one always pleads that he has nothing, he is condemned, for he is a dead body while living, or while still breathing he should be killed. In flattering a woman to bring her under control, in joking, in a marriage ceremony, in earning one's livelihood, when one's life is in danger, in protecting cows and brahminical culture, or in protecting a person from an enemy's hand, falsity is never condemned.’”


“Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said:

‘O King Parīkṣit, when Bali Mahārāja was thus advised by his spiritual master, Śukrācārya, his family priest, he remained silent for some time, and then, after full deliberation, he replied to his spiritual master as follows.’

Bali Mahārāja said:

‘As you have already stated, the principle of religion that does not hinder one's economic development, sense gratification, fame and means of livelihood is the real occupational duty of the householder. I also think that this religious principle is correct. I am the grandson of Mahārāja Prahlāda.

How can I withdraw my promise because of greed for money when I have already said that I shall give this land?
How can I behave like an ordinary cheater, especially toward a brāhmaṇa?

There is nothing more sinful than untruthfulness. Because of this, mother earth once said:

"I can bear any heavy thing except a person who is a liar."

I do not fear hell, poverty, an ocean of distress, falldown from my position or even death itself as much as I fear cheating a brāhmaṇa. My lord, you can also see that all the material opulences of this world are certainly separated from their possessor at death.

Therefore, if the brāhmaṇa Vāmanadeva is not satisfied by whatever gifts one has given, why not please Him with the riches one is destined to lose at death?

Dadhīci, Śibi and many other great personalities were willing to sacrifice even their lives for the benefit of the people in general. This is the evidence of history.

So why not give up this insignificant land?
What is the serious consideration against it?

O best of the brāhmaṇas, certainly the great demoniac kings who were never reluctant to fight enjoyed this world, but in due course of time everything they had was taken away, except their reputation, by which they continue to exist. In other words, one should try to achieve a good reputation instead of anything else. O best of the brāhmaṇas, many men have laid down their lives on the battlefield, being unafraid of fighting, but rarely has one gotten the chance to give his accumulated wealth faithfully to a saintly person who creates holy places. By giving charity, a benevolent and merciful person undoubtedly becomes even more auspicious, especially when he gives charity to a person like your good self. Under the circumstances, I must give this little brahmacārī whatever charity He wants from me. O great sage, great saintly persons like you, being completely aware of the Vedic principles for performing ritualistic ceremonies and yajñas, worship Lord Viṣṇu in all circumstances. Therefore, whether that same Lord Viṣṇu has come here to give me all benedictions or to punish me as an enemy, I must carry out His order and give Him the requested tract of land without hesitation. Although He is Viṣṇu Himself, out of fear He has covered Himself in the form of a brāhmaṇa to come to me begging. Under the circumstances, because He has assumed the form of a brāhmaṇa, even if He irreligiously arrests me or even kills me, I shall not retaliate, although He is my enemy. If this brāhmaṇa really is Lord Viṣṇu, who is worshiped by Vedic hymns, He would never give up His widespread reputation; either He would lie down having been killed by me, or He would kill me in a fight.’

Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued:

Thereafter, the spiritual master, Śukrācārya, being inspired by the Supreme Lord, cursed his exalted disciple Bali Mahārāja, who was so magnanimous and fixed in truthfulness that instead of respecting his spiritual master's instructions, he wanted to disobey his order. Although you have no knowledge, you have become a so-called learned person, and therefore you dare be so impudent as to disobey my order. Because of disobeying me, you shall very soon be bereft of all your opulence.’”

The phrase caḍe tā’ra śire means “climbed on his head;” in other words, after punishing and freeing Bali from bondage, the Lord accepted service as Bali’s doorman. In this regard one should refer to the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (8.22.35):

“O great hero, I shall always be with you and give you protection in all respects along with your associates and paraphernalia. Moreover, you will always be able to see Me there.”

( 8.23.6, 10):

“Prahlāda Mahārāja said:

‘O Supreme Personality of Godhead, You are universally worshiped; even Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva worship Your lotus feet. Yet although You are such a great personality, You have kindly promised to protect us, the demons. I think that such kindness has never been achieved even by Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva or the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, what to speak of other demigods or common people.’”

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead assured Prahlāda Mahārāja:

‘You shall be able to see Me there in My usual feature with conchshell, disc, club and lotus in My hand. Because of your transcendental bliss due to always personally seeing Me, you will have no further bondage to fruitive activities.’”

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