jueves, 16 de junio de 2011

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura - Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.69-11.76

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura

Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.69

adhyayana-sukhe prabhu viśvambhara-rāya
niravadhi jananīra ānanda bāḍāya


Lord Viśvambhara happily passed His days in study and always increased the joy of mother Śacī.


The aim of Śrī Gaurasundara’s enjoyment of scholastic pastimes was to help the living entities of this world cultivate Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore the studying and teaching pastimes of Śrī Śacīnandana increased the happiness of Śacīdevī. No one should consider Śacīdevī, who is non-different from Yaśodā, as being non-different from the external energy, māyā, and thus become established in the śākta philosophy of the followers of Durgā. Māyādevī, who is the external energy of the Lord and the mother of the universe, can never become the mother of Gaurasundara. Rather, Śacī is the personification of vātsalya-rasa, which nourishes spiritual bliss. Since the sense enjoyers, fruitive workers, and mental speculators glorify the secondary meanings of words, the primary meanings of words do not manifest in their hearts. Only persons who are engaged in the service of the Lord are fully qualified to understand the primary meanings. Such qualification is awakened in the heart of a living entity only by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.70

hena-kāle navadvīpe śrī-īśvara-purī
āilena ati alakṣita-veśa dhari’


In the meantime, Śrī Īśvara Purī came in disguise to Navadvīpa.


The word alakṣita-veśa, or “in disguise,” means that he was dressed in such way that people would not know that he was a devotee. In other words, he came dressed as an ekadaṇḍi-sannyāsī.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.71

kṛṣṇa-rase parama-vihvala mahāśaya
ekānta kṛṣṇera priya ati-dayā-maya


He was overwhelmed with love for Kṛṣṇa. He was most merciful and dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa.


In the consideration of worshipable objects, Kṛṣṇa is the topmost. Kṛṣṇa is the object of five kinds of rasas, Śrī Nārāyaṇa is the object of two and half rasas, and impersonal Brahman is the object of only śānta-rasa. But this latter rasa, śānta-rasa, is often not counted amongst the rasas. The impersonal spiritual abode of Brahman, though situated on the other side of the Virajā, is devoid of the conceptions of servant and the served. On this side of the Virajā is Devī-dhāma, wherein the material sky is situated. Mundane perishable objects are situated in this material sky. In the spiritual abode of spiritual variegatedness and spiritual characteristics, the conceptions of servant and served are present, but in this temporary material world the conceptions of servant and served are perverted.

Relationships with Kṛṣṇa in the five rasas are generally extremely rare in the material world. As far as the supreme excellence of rasas is concerned, though there is some similarity between material rasas and Vaikuṇṭha rasas, material rasas are actually abominable reflections of spiritual rasas. That is why the rasas of this material world are known as virasa, or disgusting. In the consideration of the ālambana, or support, of rasas in the spiritual world, the viṣaya, or object, is one non-dual substance and the āśraya, or subjects, are many. But in the material world we see the deviation that the objects are many and the subjects are many. In the spiritual world, the Absolute Truth, Vrajendra-nandana, is the only object and Baladeva is the manifestation of that object. Baladeva’s four manifestations, the catur-vyūha, are situated in Mahā-Vaikuṇṭha. Because the objects of the material world are infected with the modes of material nature, they are subjected to the agitation of time. From the viewpoint of subjects, the controlling spirit found in the objects of abodes such as Kailāsa contain material pride. In other words a connection with the three modes of material nature is found. Such pollution is not possible in the Absolute Truth, Lord Viṣṇu, of the spiritual world. In the material world, the impermanence of rasas and the impermanence of the subjects and objects are abominable and contrary to the principles of Vaikuṇṭha rasas. Under the subordination of Śrī Mādhavendra Purīpāda, Śrī Īśvara Purī was expert in relishing transcendental rasas in relationship with Kṛṣṇa. The service attitude of Īśvara Purī fully blossomed due to the austerity of Śrī Mādhavendra and his eagerness for achieving Kṛṣṇa, therefore he received the direct mercy of Gaurasundara, who is non-different from Vrajendra-nandana. Śrī Īśvara Purī was completely overwhelmed with love for Kṛṣṇa. In other words, mundane external feelings could not disturb his loving service. Because he was situated as the servant of the spiritual master, he was dear to Kṛṣṇa, very dear; therefore he was equally merciful to all living entities. The prime example of mercy is to awaken one’s devotion to Kṛṣṇa, as this is the eternal propensity of the soul.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.72

tāna veśe tāne keha cinite nā pāre
daive giyā uṭhilena advaita-mandire


Wearing that dress, no one could recognize him as he arrived by providence at the house of Advaita.


Although Śrī Navadvīpa Māyāpur was inhabited by many brāhmaṇas and persons attached to proper codes of conduct, Śrī Purīpāda arrived at the house of Śrī Advaita Ācārya, who was the leader of the Vaiṣṇavas, due to the consideration that persons like to associate with like-minded persons. Particularly because Śrī Advaita Prabhu was a disciple of Śrī Mādhavendra Purī. Therefore, knowing Him to be a Godbrother, Śrī Īśvara Purī went to the house of Śrī Advaita and thus proved his spontaneous attachment to his spiritual master.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.73

yekhāne advaita sevā karena vasiyā
sammukhe vasilā baḍa saṅkucita haiyā


He humbly sat down close to where Advaita Prabhu was performing His pūjā.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.74

vaiṣṇavera teja vaiṣṇavete nā lukāya
punaḥ punaḥ advaita tāhāna pāne cāya


The effulgence of a Vaiṣṇava cannot be hidden from another Vaiṣṇava, and therefore Advaita Prabhu looked at him again and again.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.75

advaita bolena,—“bāpa, tumi kon jana?
vaiṣṇava-sannyāsī tumi,—hena laya mana”


Advaita then said, “Dear Prabhu, who are you?
I think you are a Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī.”


The phrase vaiṣṇava-sannyāsī is explained as follows: The karmi sannyāsīs follow the smṛti principles of the renounced order of life and accept tridaṇḍa. In other words, they travel alone. The jñānī-sannyāsīs accept ekadaṇḍa, and while cultivating the study of Vedānta they practice six sādhanas like peacefulness, self-control, and tolerance, and achieve their desired result. The Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs, however, completely give up both the desire for material sense enjoyment and the desire for renouncing sense enjoyment and engage in the unalloyed service of Lord Hari. The principles of giving up both material enjoyment and renunciation can be found in them. They are situated in the conception found in Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (11.23.57):

etāṁ sa āsthāya parātma-niṣṭhām
adhyāsitāṁ pūrvatamair maharṣibhiḥ
ahaṁ tariṣyāmi duranta-pāraṁ
tamo mukundāṅghri-niṣevayaiva

“I shall cross over the insurmountable ocean of nescience by being firmly fixed in the service of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. This was approved by the previous ācāryas, who were fixed in firm devotion to the Lord, Paramātmā, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”

By the mercy of Śrī Mādhavendra, Śrī Advaita Prabhu was able to recognize His Godbrother. As disciples of Śrī Mādhavendra, Ācārya Prabhu played the role of a householder, while Īśvara Purīpāda played the role of a Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī. Therefore Ācārya did not take much time to recognize him as His Godbrother.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.76

bolena īśvara-purī,—“āmi śūdrādhama
dekhibāre āilāṅa tomāra caraṇa”


Īśvara Purī replied, “I am lower than a śūdra. I have come here simply to see Your lotus feet.”


The word śūdrādhama (lower than a śūdra) is often read as kṣudrādhama (lower than the lowest) by mistake. It is to be understood that when Śrī Īśvara Purīpāda referred to himself as śūdrādhama, it was a sign of humility. A self-realized Vaiṣṇava, in particular, never identifies himself as belonging to the worldly varṇāśrama society. Śrī Gaurasundara has instructed this to the conditioned souls who are situated in the principles of varṇāśrama by quoting the verses: nāhaṁ vipro na ca nara-patir and tṛṇād api sunīcena. People traveling on the path of fruitive activities identify themselves according to the mundane caste divisions of śaukra, by semen; sāvitra, by initiation; and daikṣya, by becoming a perfect brāhmaṇa. The self-realized devotees of the Lord have no interest for such identification, because they have already developed faith in topics of Hari. In particular, it is impossible for a traveller on the path of devotional service to maintain conceptions of “I” and “mine,” which is one of the offences in chanting the holy names of the Lord.

Being conditioned, the human beings consider themselves as being under the control of the three modes of nature. A person situated in the mode of goodness, surpassing the modes of passion and ignorance, displays the qualities of a brāhmaṇa in his behaviour and activities. When one is situated in the mode of goodness and passion, he displays the qualities of a kṣatriya. When one is situated in goodness and ignorance, he displays the qualities of a vaiśya. When one is situated in the modes of passion and ignorance, he displays the qualities of a śūdra. And when one is situated in ignorance, he displays qualities lower than those of a śūdra, or those of a mleccha. In the Bhagavad-gītā (4.13), the Supreme Lord has stated:

“According to the three modes of material nature and the work associated with them, the four divisions of human society are created by Me.”

According to this principle of dividing the varṇas, the activities of śūdras are devoid of all saṁskāras. The other three varṇas of twice-borns’ are qualified to undergo all saṁskāras, but the śūdras are naturally bereft of all saṁskāras; they are only qualified for undergoing the saṁskāra of marriage. Just as an absence of mundane pride is indicated by usage of the words tṛṇād api sunīca, the Vaiṣṇavas who have given up pride for their varṇa identify themselves as belonging to castes lower than śūdra. The karmī and jñānī sannyāsīs proudly declare themselves as the most exalted in the material world, but Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs do not exhibit such mentality and external behaviour. The karmī sannyāsīs are nirāśīr nirnamaṣkriyaḥ—“not offering anyone blessings or obeisances,” the jñānī sannyāsīs proudly identify themselves as “Nārāyaṇa,” but the tridaṇḍi Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī, though respected by others as non-different from Nārāyaṇa, nevertheless replies, dāso ‘smi—“I am a servant.” He is devoid of mundane pride. Therefore he does not beg people for prestige like the other sannyāsīs. But if foolish people disrespect the Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī out of envy, then even ordinary smṛti-śāstras prescribe atonement. Non-Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs try to advance to the platform of adulterated paramahaṁsa, but Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs are naturally situated on the paramahaṁsa platform. Śrī Purīpāda humbly replied that he came to Śrī Advaita Prabhu in order to worship His lotus feet. Another reading is viprādhama, or “lowest of the brāhmaṇas.”

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