lunes, 20 de junio de 2011

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura - Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.20 - 12.53

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura

Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.20

ei-mate vidyā-rase vaikuṇṭha-īśvara
bhramite dekhena āra dine gadādhara


In this way the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha enjoyed the life of a scholar. One day, while wandering about Navadvīpa, Nimāi met Gadādhara.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.21

hāsi’ dui hāte prabhu rākhilā dhariyā
“nyāya paḍa tumi, āmā’ yāo prabodhiyā”


The Lord smiled as He caught Gadādhara’s hands and said, “Aren’t you studying logic? Come, let us debate.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.22

“jijñāsaha”,—gadādhara bolaye vacana
prabhu bole,—“kaha dekhi muktira lakṣaṇa”


Gadādhara said, “So, question me,” and Nimāi asked, “What are the symptoms of liberation?”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.23

śāstra-artha yena gadādhara vākhānilā
prabhu bolena,—“vyākhyā karite nā jānilā”


Gadādhara then explained the symptoms of liberation according to the scriptures, but Nimāi countered, “You don’t know how to explain properly.”


Śrī Gadādhara Paṇḍita explained to Nimāi the lesson that he had learned that day. Hearing this, the Lord replied, “Your explanation is not good.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.24

gadādhara bole,—“ātyantika duḥkha-nāśa
ihārei śāstre kahe muktira prakāśa”


Gadādhara then said, “Liberation is freedom from misery. This is the meaning of liberation according to the scriptures.”


Śrī Gadādhara said, “It is stated in various scriptures such as the Sāṅkhya-śāstras that mitigation of excessive distress is the symptom of liberation.” In the Sāṅkhya-pravacana-sūtras (1.1) it is stated:

atha trividha-duḥkhātyanta nivṛtir atyanta puruṣārthaḥ

“Mitigation of the threefold miseries is the goal of life.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.25

nānā-rūpe doṣe’ prabhu sarasvatī-pati
hena nāhi tārkika, ye karibeka sthiti


Then the Lord, who is the husband of goddess Sarasvatī, pointed out various faults in his statement. There was no one who could defeat His argument and silence Him.


The Lord is the direct manifestation of the Vaiṣṇava literatures and the master of the goddess of learning, therefore no one can equal Him in argument. Śrī Gaurasundara properly pointed out how the symptoms of liberation mentioned in the nyāya-śāstras are most useless and full of faults. Inaugurating the philosophy of Śrī Madhvācāryapāda, that:

mokṣaṁ viṣṇvaṅghri-lābhaṁ

“The symptom of liberation is attainment of the lotus feet of Viṣṇu,”

He established that the existence of the gross and subtle bodies, which enjoy happiness and distress, is temporary, and the living entity’s eternal propensity, or constitutional duty, of devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa is the symptom of liberation.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.26

hena jana nāhika ye prabhu-sane bole
gadādhara bhāve,—“āji varti palāile!”


No one even dared to speak with the Lord, and thus Gadādhara thought, “I’ll be relieved to get out of here!”


No one in the entire universe was qualified to face the Lord’s challenge or converse with Him. Gadādhara Paṇḍita thought, “I’ll be saved if I can run away from Him.”

The word varti (from the Sanskrit dhatu vṛt) means “I remain present,” “in this case I am spared,” or “I saved my life.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.27

prabhu bole,—“gadādhara, āji yāha ghara
kāli bujhibāṅa, tumi āsiha satvara”


The Lord said, “Gadādhara, you can go home today, but come early tomorrow so we can discuss more.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.28

namaskari’ gadādhara calilena ghare
ṭhākura bhramena sarva nagare nagare


Gadādhara offered his respects to Nimāi and went home, and Nimāi continued to wander through the streets of Navadvīpa.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.29

parama-paṇḍita-jñāna haila sabāra
sabei karena dekhi’ sambhrama apāra


Everyone considered Nimāi a most learned scholar, so they treated Him with awe and reverence.


The Lord defeated all the teachers of Navadvīpa by His unparalleled knowledge and was established as the most learned scholar. Everyone respected Him as the foremost scholar.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.30

vikāle ṭhākura sarva paḍuyāra saṅge
gaṅgā-tīre āsiyā vaisena mahāraṅge


Every afternoon Nimāi would sit on the bank of the Ganges with His students.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.31

sindhu-sutā-sevita prabhura kalevara
tribhuvane advitīya madana sundara


The Lord’s body is served by Lakṣmī, the daughter of the ocean. His beauty surpasses that of Cupid and is therefore incomparable throughout the three worlds.


The word sindhu-sutā refers to Śrī Lakṣmīdevī, who appeared during the churning of the ocean. She is described in the Brahma-saṁhitā (29) as follows:

govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of lakṣmīs or gopīs.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.32

catur-dike veḍiyā vaisena śiṣya-gaṇa
madhye śāstra vākhānena śrī-śacīnandana


Surrounded by His students, Śrī Śacīnandana would give explanations on the scriptures.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.33

vaiṣṇava-sakale tabe sandhyā-kāla haile
āsiyā vaisena gaṅgā-tīre kutuhale


In the evening all the Vaiṣṇavas also gathered on the bank of the Ganges.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.34

dūre thāki’ prabhura vyākhyāna sabhe śune
hariṣe viṣāda sabhe bhāve’ mane mane


As they listened to Nimāi’s explanations from a distance, they felt both happiness and lamentation.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.35

keha bole,—“hena rūpa, hena vidyā yā’ra
nā bhajile kṛṣṇa, nahe kichu upakāra”


One of them said, “If anyone who possesses such beauty and knowledge does not worship Kṛṣṇa, there is no benefit.”


In this world a beautiful form is the object of praise, so also is great learning. But what is beautiful or learned, when those with beauty or learning factually neither benefit themselves nor others if they do not worship Kṛṣṇa?

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.36

sabei bolena, “bhāi, uhāne dekhiyā
phāṅki-jijñāsāra bhaye yāi palāirā”


They all replied, “Dear brother, anyone who sees Him runs away in fear of facing His challenge.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.37

keha bole,—“dekhā haile nā dena eḍiyā
mahādānī-prāya yena rākhena dhariyā


Someone else said, “When He sees someone, He doesn’t allow him to leave. He captures him just like a tax collector captures a debtor.”


The phrase mahādānī-prāya means “like a highly posted royal servant who collects taxes, revenues, or rents.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.38

keha bole,—“brāhmaṇera śakti amānuṣī
kona mahāpuruṣa vā haya—hena vāsi


Another said, “This brāhmaṇa has uncommon potency. I think He must be some great personality.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.39

yadyapiha nirantara vākhānena phāṅki!
tathāpi santoṣa baḍa pāṅa iṅhā dekhi’


“Although He constantly asks shrewd questions, we still get great satisfaction just by seeing Him.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.40

manuṣyera emana pāṇḍitya dekhi nāi
kṛṣṇa nā bhajena,—sabe ei duḥkha pāi”


“We’ve never seen such knowledge in an ordinary person. Our only regret is that He doesn’t worship Kṛṣṇa.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.41

anyo ‘nye sabei sādhena sabā’ prati
“sabhe bala,—’ihāna hauka kṛṣṇe rati’”


The Vaiṣṇavas all requested each other, “Bless Nimāi so that His mind will be fixed on Kṛṣṇa.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.42

daṇḍavat hai’ sabhe paḍilā gaṅgāre
sarva bhāgavata meli’ āśīrvāda kare


Then they all offered their obeisances on the bank of the Ganges and blessed Nimāi with a prayer.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.43

“hena kara kṛṣṇa—jagannāthera nandana
to’ra rase matta hau, chāḍi’ anya-mana


“O Kṛṣṇa, please let the son of Jagannātha Miśra become absorbed in You without deviation.”


The Vaiṣṇavas of Navadvīpa began to pray to Lord Kṛṣṇa, “May Nimāi Paṇḍita, the son of Jagannātha Miśra, give up all other endeavors and fully engage in worshiping Kṛṣṇa. May Nimāi Paṇḍita also manifest uncommon endeavors in the devotional service of Kṛṣṇa like those that have earned Him the highest elevated position of learning in the world.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.44

niravadhi prema-bhāve bhajuka tomāre
hena, saṅga kṛṣṇa, deha’ āmā’ sabākāre”


“Let Him constantly worship You in love. O Lord, please let us have such association.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.45

antaryāmī prabhu,—citta jānena sabāra
śrīvāsādi dekhilei kare’ namaskāra


As the Supersoul, the Lord knows the heart of all living entities. Whenever He saw devotees like Śrīvāsa, He would offer them His respects.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.46

bhakta āśīrvāda prabhu śire kari’ laya
bhakta-āśīrvāde se kṛṣṇete bhakti haya


The Lord accepted the devotees’ blessings on His head, for devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa is attained only by the blessings of devotees.


Although the Lord is the only sovereign master of the fourteen worlds, He nevertheless accepted on His head the blessings of His devotees. The devotees’ blessings are so powerful that by their influence even a living entity who is averse to Kṛṣṇa becomes attached to His lotus feet.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.47

keha keha sākṣāte o prabhu dekhi’ bole
“ki kārye goṅāo kāla tumi vidyā-bhole?”


Someone also directly told Nimāi, “Why are You wasting Your time with mundane education?”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.48

keha bole,—“hera dekha, nimāñi-paṇḍita!
vidyāya ki lābha?—kṛṣṇa bhajaha tvarita


Another person said, “Look, Nimāi, what do You gain from studying? Just worship Kṛṣṇa.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.49

paḍe kene loka?—kṛṣṇa-bhakti jānibāre
se yadi nahila, tabe vidyāya ki kare?”


“Why do people study? Education is only for understanding devotional service of Lord Kṛṣṇa. If that purpose is not served, then what is the use of Your education?”


Devotion to Kṛṣṇa, or achieving devotional service to Kṛṣṇa, is the perfection of all knowledge and learning. If devotion to Kṛṣṇa is not attained, then all endeavors for accumulating knowledge are useless. Knowledge that does not awaken one’s attachment for Kṛṣṇa simply increases one’s material illusion. That is why Śrīmad Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has written in his Śaraṇāgati:

jaḍa-vidyā yata māyāra vaibhava,
tomāra bhajane bādhā.
moha janamiyā, anitya  saṁsāre,
jīvake karaye gāḍha

“Materialistic studies are the glare of māyā only, for they are an obstacle to spiritual progress. They create illusion in this material world and turn the living entity into an ass.”

In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Madhya 8.245) it is stated:

“On one occasion the Lord inquired, ‘Of all types of education, which is the most important?’
Rāmānanda Rāya replied, ‘No education is important other than the transcendental devotional service of Kṛṣṇa.’”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.50

hāsi’ bole prabhu,—“baḍa bhāgya se āmāra
tomarā śikhāo more kṛṣṇa-bhakti sāra


The Lord smiled and said, “I am most fortunate, for you are all teaching Me that devotional service to Kṛṣṇa is the essence of all education.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.51

tumi saba yā’ra kara śubhānusandhāna
mora citte hena laya, sei bhāgyavān


“I sincerely feel that one who is blessed by all of you is most fortunate.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.52

kata-dina paḍāiyā, mora citte āche
calimu bujhiyā bhāla vaiṣṇavera kāche”


“I’ve already decided that after teaching a while longer, I will go serve a pure devotee.”


The Lord said, “After studying in this way for a while longer, I will approach a mahā-bhāgavata Vaiṣṇava and, after understanding topics of the spiritual world, I will follow him. In other words, I have a desire to first become expert in studies and then cultivate pure Vaiṣṇava principles.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 12.53

eta bali’ hāse’ prabhu sevakera sane
prabhura māyāya keha prabhure nā cine


After saying this, the Lord smiled at His servants. By His influence, however, no one could recognise Him.

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