miércoles, 15 de junio de 2011

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura - Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.52-11.68

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura

Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.52

hena mate bhakta-gaṇa nadīyāya vaise
sakala nadīyā matta dhana-putra-rase


In this way the devotees resided in Navadvīpa, which was filled with people intoxicated by wealth and children.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.53

śunilei kīrtana, karaye parihāsa
keha bole,—“saba peṭa puṣibāra āśa”


As soon as such people heard the devotees’ kīrtana, they taunted the devotees. Someone said, “This is just a means for filling their stomachs.”


Being induced by material knowledge, all the residents of Nadia were maddened by the affection of their wives and children and the accumulation of material education and wealth, thus they were averse to the service of Lord Hari. They neither had attachment for hearing the glories of the Lord nor did they realize the great necessity of chanting the glories of Kṛṣṇa. That is why they neglected and derided the service of the Lord. They considered hari-kīrtana, which meant for the service of the Lord, as a means of filling the stomach for those who are engaged in fruitive activities.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.54

keha bole,—“jñāna-yoga eḍiyā vicāra
uddhatera prāya nṛtya,—e kon vyabhāra?”


Another said, “They have given up the cultivation of knowledge to dance like madmen. What kind of behaviour is this?”


Speculating on impersonal Brahman is called jñāna. The impersonalists conclude that this jñāna is the goal of life. Objects that are used as ingredients for the sense gratification of conditioned souls who are averse to Kṛṣṇa are known as viṣaya, or sense objects. To remain indifferent to such objects, or to restrain one’s mind from these objects, is called yoga. Persons who are following the philosophy of monism consider merging into Brahman or merging with the Lord as the ultimate goal of the living entities. Their sādhana is also based on impersonal Vedānta and aṣṭāṅga-yoga-śāstras. The devotional service of the Lord, however, never produces such abominable and unpalatable temporary deceit. The restlessness that is found in persons who are inclined to the service of the Lord is not due to sense gratification. But since the impersonalists and yogis are situated on the platform of narrow-mindedness, they are unable to understand the endeavours of the Lord’s devotees. This is confirmed in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (11.2.40) in the following words:

“When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and chants like a madman, not caring for outsiders.”

In the consideration of abhidheya, temporary sādhanas followed by the jñānīs and yogis are not accepted by the devotees. They know activities favourable to the service of eternally liberated souls as abhidheya-sādhana-bhakti. This does not mean that the sense gratification on the pretext of the duplicitous artificial hearing, chanting, dancing, and playing instruments of the āulas, bāulas, kartābhajās, sahajiyās, sakhībhekīs, smārtas, and ativāḍis is approved as sādhana, or the cultivation of pure devotional service.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.55

keha bole,—“kata vā paḍiluṅ bhāgavata
nāciba kāṅdiba,—hena nā dekhiluṅ patha


Someone else said, “I have studied Śrīmad Bhāgavatam for a long time, but I have never found any mention of dancing and crying as a spiritual path.”


Due to a poor fund of knowledge, the asslike, so-called scriptural reciters with steel-framed hearts proudly declare that there is no instruction in Śrīmad Bhāgavatam that devotees should cry and dance while hearing and chanting the names of Kṛṣṇa. Although the inauspicious instruction for the artificial dancing and crying that the proud reciters and listeners of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam exhibit in order to fulfil their mundane selfishness is not found in Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, the transformations of ecstatic love born from the loving service of Lord Kṛṣṇa that are sometimes spontaneously manifested in the pure living entities who are absorbed in the service of Hari are profusely mentioned in Śrīmad Bhāgavatam.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.56

śrīvāsa-paṇḍita-cāri-bhāira lāgiyā
nidrā nāhi yāi, bhāi, bhojana kariyā


“My dear brothers, because of Śrīvāsa and his three brothers we cannot sleep after eating.”


As a result of the pure devotees’ loud chanting for the pleasure of Lord Kṛṣṇa, people who were attached to sense gratification felt disturbed in their enjoying the happiness of eating and sleeping and were thus greatly displeased. Since Śrīvāsa Paṇḍita and his three brothers loudly chanted the names of Kṛṣṇa every night, the fruitive workers, who are prone to material enjoyment, could not respect such pure conceptions of abhidheya.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.57

dhīre dhīre ‘kṛṣṇa’ balile ki puṇya nahe?
nācile, gāile, ḍāka chāḍile, ki haye?”


“Is there no piety in softly chanting Kṛṣṇa’s names?
Must one chant, dance, and shout loudly?”


Ordinary persons who were engaged in fruitive activities utilised their mundane experience to accumulate piety for their better arrangement of sense gratification. According to the logic, kāmukāḥ kāminī-mayam paśyanti nikhilaṁ jagat—“a lusty man sees the entire world as full of women,” people thought that on the pretext of serving Hari the intelligent pure devotees were also accumulating piety to gratify their temporary senses like themselves. Being controlled by such base considerations, they thought that the Vaiṣṇavas, like themselves, had a thirst for accumulating piety in all their activities. That is why the non-devotees, who were averse to the Lord, displayed a difference in opinion with the devotees’ abhidheya-sādhana, or method of achieving the goal of life. They were partial to the artificial chanting of the holy names in a solitary place and opposed to the all-auspicious congregational chanting of the names of Kṛṣṇa, thus they were misguided due to their concocted imagination. They foolishly declared that the Vaiṣṇavas’ activities for achieving the goal of life like singing and dancing for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa and loudly calling out the names of Kṛṣṇa with love were equal, or even inferior, to artificial nirjana-bhajana, or chanting of the holy names in a solitary place.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.58

ei-mata yata pāpa-pāṣaṇḍīra gaṇa
dekhilei vaiṣṇavere, kare, ku-kathana


In this way all the sinful atheists abused the Vaiṣṇavas whenever they saw them.


The word saṁkathana refers to the disclosure of contrary feelings, while profusely criticizing the Vaiṣṇavas.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.59

śuniyā vaiṣṇava saba mahāduḥkha pāya
‘kṛṣṇa’ bali’ sabei kāṅdena ūrdhvarāya


Hearing their abusive words, the devotees were greatly distressed. They would chant Kṛṣṇa’s name and cry loudly.


The Vaiṣṇavas felt greatly distressed at heart on hearing the wicked words of the fruitive workers, mental speculators, and sense gratifiers. Considering these people’s pathetic condition, the Vaiṣṇavas desired their eternal benefit and continually appealed to the Lord from the core of their hearts.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.60

“kata-dine e-saba duḥkhera habe nāśa
jagatere, kṛṣṇacandra, karaha prakāśa”


“How long will this miserable condition last?
O Kṛṣṇacandra, please manifest Yourself to these people.”


The devotees waited with the expectation that they would soon see the appearance of the Absolute Truth, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, within this material world. By the appearance of Kṛṣṇa, all the darkness of ignorance in the material world would be destroyed—this thought gave them solace.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.61

sakala vaiṣṇava mili’ advaitera sthāne
pāṣaṇḍīra vacana karena nivedane


The Vaiṣṇavas all told Advaita Prabhu about the abusive words of the atheists.


Those who are averse to the service and pastimes of the Supreme Lord are called pāṣaṇḍīs. The behaviour and statements of such pāṣaṇḍīs are full of envy for the Vaiṣṇavas. Understanding Śrī Advaita Prabhu as the leader amongst the Navadvīpa Vaiṣṇavas, all the Vaiṣṇavas informed Him of the atheistic views of those who were opposed to the Vaiṣṇavas.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.62

śuniyā advaita haya rudra-avatāra
“saṁhārimu saba” bali’ karaye huṅkāra


Hearing their account, Advaita Ācārya became as angry as Lord Rudra and loudly exclaimed, “I will kill them all!”


As the leader of the Viśva-vaiṣṇava Rāja-sabhā, Śrī Advaita Prabhu became furious on hearing about the abusive words of the pāṣaṇḍīs and loudly declared, “I will annihilate all of them!” Those less-intelligent persons who are averse to the Vaiṣṇavas consider the anger of Vaiṣṇava Ācārya Advaita Prabhu as equal or similar to their own anger, which is born from disturbances to their sense gratification, and are thus certainly guaranteed of going to hell.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.63

“āsiteche ei mora prabhu cakradhara
dekhibā ki haya ei nadīyā-bhitara


“My Lord, who carries a cakra, is coming. Then you will see what happens in Nadia.”


Śrī Advaita Prabhu began to tell the Vaiṣṇavas who had approached Him for remedies that His worshipable Lord Viṣṇu, who holds the Sudarśana cakra, is coming to Navadvīpa soon. By Him, the ignorance of the fools would be destroyed.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.64

karāimu kṛṣṇa sarva-nayana-gocara
tabe se ‘advaita’-nāma kṛṣṇera kiṅkara!


“I will make Kṛṣṇa appear before the eyes of all, and then this person named “Advaita” will be known as the servant of Kṛṣṇa.


The devotees of Kṛṣṇa are non-different from Kṛṣṇa. Since the Absolute Truth is non-dual, according to the concept of oneness the various manifestations of Viṣṇu and His plenary portions are non-different from Him. According to the philosophy of difference, the living entities are situated on the platform of inconceivable oneness and difference. That is why Ācārya Prabhu had to accept the title “Advaita.” The philosophy of acintya-bhedābheda, which is eternally pure and primeval, was previously known as śuddhādvaita. With the consent of sages coming in the line of Bodhāyana, this philosophy was called viśiṣṭādvaita by those in the line of Śrī Rāmānuja; yet actually, according to the consideration of variegatedness, this philosophy is only a partial manifestation of the acintya-bhedābheda philosophy. The philosophy of dvaitādvaita has a similar purpose to that described in the philosophies of śuddhādvaita and viśiṣṭādvaita, both of which have conclusions different from the philosophy of kevalādvaita, or exclusive monism, but it is also an incomplete manifestation of the acintya-bhedābheda philosophy. The philosophy of śuddhādvaita, which openly and clearly establishes differences from the philosophy of kevalādvaita, is also a preliminary consideration of the acintya-bhedābheda philosophy. Therefore, desiring to perfect the four philosophical conclusions of śuddhādvaita (purified monism), viśiṣṭādvaita (specific monism), dvaitādvaita (monism and dualism), and śuddha-dvaita (purified dualism), Śrī Advaita Prabhu, who was the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Ācārya, inaugurated the process of considering Vedānta in the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava way. Śrī Gaurasundara and His followers, the six Gosvāmīs, have generated new branches and sub-branches of the philosophy of acintya-bhedābheda. In order to fulfil the meaning of His name, Advaita, and to manifest the form of Kṛṣṇa to everyone—including Buddhists, karmis, and impersonalists—Śrī Advaita Ācārya, who is eternally situated as the servant of Kṛṣṇa, manifested His own service propensity in this material world. The word sarva in this verse refers to former Vaiṣṇava sages as well as followers of the philosophy of Madhvācārya, who appeared in the Middle Ages. The servant of Kṛṣṇa has no engagement other than the service of Kṛṣṇa. All their activities are meant to please Kṛṣṇa. An ācārya has no other thought or activity than: “Let everyone of this world be engaged in the devotional service of the Lord.” When devotional service mixed with fruitive activities turns into devotional service devoid of even a scent of fruitive activities it is called kevala-bhakti, or unalloyed devotional service. At that time the distinctions born from material considerations are eradicated and the spiritual distinctions between a servant and the Lord are awakened.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.65

āra dina kata giyā thāka, bhāi saba!
ethāi dekhibā saba kṛṣṇa anubhava”


“Please wait a few more days, My dear brothers, and you will see Kṛṣṇa right here.”


Śrī Advaita Prabhu said: “O devotees, please wait for some days. You will soon realise Kṛṣṇa, within and without. By the strength of your devotional service, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who enjoys with the gopīs, will manifest His form as Śrī Gaurasundara among you. By serving Him, you will achieve the perfection of serving Kṛṣṇa.” This does not mean that Śrī Advaita Prabhu preached the philosophy of gopī-chāḍi gaurāṅga-nāgarī, or becoming a lover of Gaurāṅga who has left the gopīs. In the performance of kīrtana, which is the service of Śrī Gaurasundara, the worship of Gaura is the worship of Kṛṣṇa and the worship of Kṛṣṇa is the worship of Gaura. Not understanding Śrī Gaurasundara as Kṛṣṇa and considering Śrī Nityānanda Svarūpa as merely a spiritual master, foolish ignorant people fall from the devotional service of the Lord. Moreover, if they consider that the pastimes of Gaura are not those of Kṛṣṇa but only the pastimes of a devotee, then they meet a similar fate. The pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa are Śrī Gaurasundara’s pastimes of giving conjugal enjoyment; they are not contaminated with the philosophy of the prākṛta-sahajiyās (mundane devotees). If a sādhaka considers that the pastimes of Śrī Gaura are not those of Śrī Kṛṣṇa but are separate manifestations of variegated material enjoyment, he falls from his position and becomes a conditioned soul. Then, leaving the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the illusory energy supplies him the evil propensity of imagining to enjoy Gaura. The pure devotees of Gaura do not associate with such so-called gaura-bhaktas, who are actually servants of māyā and followers of the śākta philosophy. In the consideration of pure devotees, mixed devotional service is prominently found in the thirteen pseudo Vaiṣṇava apa-sampradāyas like bāula, sahajiyā, and gaura-nāgarī. Giving up such unwanted association is an exhibition of non-duplicitous devotion to Śrī Gaurasundara. Until the propensity for serving Kṛṣṇa is awakened in the heart of a living entity, his clear perception of Śrī Gaurasundara remains covered by the spirit of material enjoyment. When this covering is removed, then, under the guidance of Śrī Advaita Prabhu, one soon attains the fortune of seeing Śrī Gaurasundara.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.66

advaitera vākya śuni’ bhāgavata-gaṇa
duḥkha pāsariyā sabe karena kīrtana


After hearing the words of Advaita, all the devotees forgot their distress and began kīrtana.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.67

uṭhila kṛṣṇera nāma parama-maṅgala
advaita-sahita sabe hailā vihvala


As the auspicious sound of Kṛṣṇa’s names arose, Advaita and the other devotees became overwhelmed.


While loudly chanting the sixteen name, or thirty-two syllable, Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, or by loudly chanting the names of Śrī Rādhā-Govinda, Śrī Advaita Prabhu became overwhelmed in ecstasy. According to the learned viewpoint, the names of Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa that Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī has indicated in two of the concluding verses of Vilāpa-kusumāñjali beginning with āśābharair amṛta-sindhu-mayaiḥ are included within the sixteen names, or thirty-two syllables, of the mahā-mantra. The so-called devotees of the pseudo sampradāyas who are opposed to the followers of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, though identifying themselves as devotees, are unable to understand the identity of Kṛṣṇa’s names, and being reluctant to accept the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra composed of sixteen names, or thirty-two syllables, as names of Kṛṣṇa, they thus consider the mahā-mantra as an ordinary mantra. These offenders are traveling towards hell and are simply rebellious against the guru.

One should discuss the verse tuṇḍe tāṇḍavinī ratiṁ in this regard:

tuṇḍe tāṇḍavinī ratiṁ vitanute tuṇḍāvalī-labdhaye
 karṇa-kroḍa-kaḍambinī ghaṭayate karṇārbudebhyaḥ spṛhām
cetaḥ-prāṅgaṇa-saṅginī vijayate sarvendriyāṇāṁ kṛtiṁ
 no jāne janitā kiyadbhir amṛtaiḥ kṛṣṇeti varṇa-dvayī
(Vidagdha-mādhava 1.15)

“I do not know how much nectar the two syllables ‘Kṛṣ-ṇa’ have produced. When the holy name of Kṛṣṇa is chanted, it appears to dance within the mouth. We then desire many, many mouths. When that name enters the holes of the ears, we desire many millions of ears. And when the holy name dances in the courtyard of the heart, it conquers the activities of the mind, and therefore all the senses become inert.”

The names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, or in other words, the names “Hare Kṛṣṇa”, indicate Śrī Rādhā-Govinda, and the names “Hare Rāma” also refer to Śrī Rādhā-Govinda. Those who have learned to become subordinate to Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, who is situated as the subordinate of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī Prabhuvara, who composed Śrī Rādhāṣṭaka and Śrī Hari-nāmāṣṭaka, can never commit offences at the feet of Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī. Śrī Gaurasundara has incarnated in order to teach people that the names of Śrī Rādhā-Govinda and Śrī Rādhā-Govinda Themselves are non-different. He instructed the conclusions of acintya-bhedābheda to thoughtful persons.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 11.68

pāṣaṇḍīra vākya-jvālā saba gela dūra
ei-mata pulakita navadvīpa-pura


The pains caused by the atheists’ abusive words were mitigated, as the city of Navadvīpa became filled with ecstasy.


Śrī Advaita Prabhu’s solacing words extinguished the burning fire arising from the atheistic statements in which the devotees of Kṛṣṇa were compared to atheists, who are envious of the Vaiṣṇavas and who worship five gods. The attitude of atheism, in other words, the temperament of being envious of Vaiṣṇavas and averse to devotional service is present in the covered Buddhist codes of reconciliation and its propagation. Since this temperament was vanquished, in other words, when impersonalism, which is opposed to Vaiṣṇavism, was temporarily checked in the town of Navadvīpa, the material conceptions of the residents of Navadvīpa were removed. As a result, the pure Vaiṣṇavas were greatly pleased.

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