martes, 31 de mayo de 2011

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura 9.27-9.33

Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata - Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura

Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.27

kona-dina patrera gaḍiyā nāga-gaṇa
jale yāya laiyā sakala śiśu-gaṇa


One day the Lord made snakes out of leaves and then took His friends to the water.


In this verse the word nāga-gaṇa refers to the replicas of Kāliya and the other serpents, and the word jale refers to the water of the lake within the Yamunā.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.28

jhāṅpa diyā paḍe keha aceṣṭa haiyā
caitanya karāya pāche āpani āsiyā


One of them jumped into the water and remained there inert. Later, the Lord brought him back to consciousness.


This pastime is described in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.15.47-52) as follows:

“Once, surrounded by His boyfriends, Kṛṣṇa went without Balarāma to the Yamunā River, where the cows and cowherd boys became afflicted by thirst and were feeling acute distress from the glaring summer sun. When they drank the water of the Yamunā River that had been contaminated by the serpent’s poison, all the cows and boys lost their consciousness and fell lifeless at the water’s edge. At that time Lord Kṛṣṇa, the master of all masters of mystic potency, felt compassion for them and immediately brought them back to life by showering His nectarean glance upon them.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.29

kona-dina tālavane śiśu-gaṇa laiyā
śiśu-saṅge tāla khāya dhenuka māriyā


Another day the Lord and His friends went to Tālavana, where they killed Dhenukāsura and then ate tāla fruits.


In the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.15.21) Tālavana is described as:

su-mahad vanaṁ tālāli-saṅkulam:

“a very great forest filled with rows of palm trees.”

The words dhenuka māriyā mean “by killing the demon Dhenuka.”

This pastime is described in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.15.32) as follows:

“Lord Balarāma seized Dhenuka by his hooves, whirled him about with one hand and threw him into the top of a palm tree. The violent wheeling motion killed the demon.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.30

śiśu-saṅge goṣṭhe giyā nānā-krīḍā kare
baka-agha-vatsāsura kari’ tāhā māre


Nityānanda and His childhood friends went into the fields and enjoyed various pastimes such as the killing of Bakāsura, Aghāsura, and Vatsāsura.


Regarding goṣṭhe nānā-krīḍā—“various pastimes in the pasturing fields,” the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.11.39-40) states:

“Sometimes Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma would play on Their flutes, sometimes They would throw ropes and stones devised for getting fruits from the trees, sometimes They would throw only stones, and sometimes, Their ankle bells tinkling, They would play football with fruits like bael and āmalakī. Sometimes They would cover Themselves with blankets and imitate cows and bulls and fight with one another, roaring loudly, and sometimes They would imitate the voices of the animals.”

The killing of Bakāsura is described in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.11.51) as follows:

“When Kṛṣṇa, the leader of the Vaiṣṇavas, saw that the demon Bakāsura, the friend of Kaṁsa, was endeavouring to attack Him, with His arms He captured the demon by the two halves of the beak, and in the presence of all the cowherd boys Kṛṣṇa very easily bifurcated Him, as a child splits a blade of vīraṇa grass. By thus killing the demon, Kṛṣṇa very much pleased the denizens of heaven.”

The killing of Aghāsura is described in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.12.30-31) as follows:

“When the invincible Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa, heard the demigods crying ‘Alas! Alas!’ from behind the clouds, He immediately enlarged Himself within the demon’s throat, just to save Himself and the cowherd boys, His own associates, from the demon who wished to smash them. Then, because Kṛṣṇa had increased the size of His body, the demon extended his own body to a very large size. Nonetheless, his breathing stopped, he suffocated, and his eyes rolled here and there and popped out. The demon’s life air, however, could not pass through any outlet, and therefore it finally burst out through a hole in the top of the demon’s head.”

The killing of Vatsāsura is described in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.11.43) as follows:

“Thereafter, Śrī Kṛṣṇa caught the demon by the hind legs and tail, twirled the demon’s whole body very strongly until the demon was dead, and threw him into the top of a kapittha tree, which then fell down, along with the body of the demon, who had assumed a great form.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.31

vikāle āise ghara goṣṭhira sahite
śiśu-gaṇa-saṅge śṛṅga bāite bāite


In the afternoon the Lord and His associates returned home blowing buffalo horns.


The musical instrument śṛṅga is made from a horn and is called śiṅgā and viṣāṇa.

Bāite bāite comes from the word bāya, which is a corruption of the word vādana, which is a corruption of the Sanskrit verb vādi.

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.32

kona-dina kare govardhana-dhara-līlā
vṛndāvana raci’ kona-dina kare khelā


One day they enjoyed the pastimes of lifting Govardhana Hill, and another day they created a Vṛndāvana, wherein they enjoyed various sports.


The phrase govardhana-dhara-līlā—“lifting Govardhana Hill” is described in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.25.19) as follows:

“Lord Kṛṣṇa picked up Govardhana Hill with one hand and held it aloft just as easily as a child holds up an umbrella.”

The word raci means “created.”

CB Ādi-khaṇḍa 9.33

kona-dina kare gopīra vasana-haraṇa
kona-dina kare yajña-patnī-daraśana


One day they enacted Kṛṣṇa’s pastime of stealing the gopīs’ clothes, and another day they enacted His meeting the wives of the brāhmaṇas.


Regarding gopīra vasana-haraṇa—“stealing the gopīs’ clothes,” one should see Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.22.1-28):

Śukadeva Gosvāmī said:

“During the first month of the winter season, the young unmarried girls of Gokula observed the vow of worshiping goddess Kātyāyanī. For the entire month they ate only un-spiced khichrī .My dear King, after they had bathed in the water of the Yamunā just as the sun was rising, the gopīs made an earthen deity of goddess Durgā on the riverbank. Then they worshiped her with such aromatic substances as sandalwood pulp, along with other items both opulent and simple, including lamps, fruits, betel nuts, newly grown leaves, and fragrant garlands and incense. Each of the young unmarried girls performed her worship while chanting the following mantra.

‘O goddess Kātyāyanī, O great potency of the Lord, O possessor of great mystic power and mighty controller of all, please make the son of Nanda Mahārāja my husband. I offer my obeisances unto you.’

Thus for an entire month the girls carried out their vow and properly worshiped the goddess Bhadrakālī, fully absorbing their minds in Kṛṣṇa and meditating upon the following thought:

‘May the son of King Nanda become my husband.’

Each day they rose at dawn. Calling out to one another by name, they all held hands and loudly sang the glories of Kṛṣṇa while going to the Kālindī to take their bath.

One day they came to the riverbank and, putting aside their clothing as they had done before, happily played in the water while singing the glories of Kṛṣṇa. Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and master of all masters of mystic yoga, was aware of what the gopīs were doing, and thus He went there surrounded by His young companions to award the gopīs the perfection of their endeavour. Taking the girls' garments, He quickly climbed to the top of a kadamba tree. Then, as He laughed loudly and His companions also laughed, He addressed the girls jokingly.

[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:]

‘My dear girls, you may each come here as you wish and take back your garments. I'm telling you the truth and am not joking with you, since I see you're fatigued from executing austere vows. I have never before spoken a lie, and these boys know it. Therefore, O slender-waisted girls, please come forward, either one by one or all together, and pick out your clothes.

Seeing how Kṛṣṇa was joking with them, the gopīs became fully immersed in love for Him, and as they glanced at each other they began to laugh and joke among themselves, even in their embarrassment. But still they did not come out of the water. As Śrī Govinda spoke to the gopīs in this way, His joking words completely captivated their minds. Submerged up to their necks in the cold water, they began to shiver. Thus they addressed Him as follows.

[The gopīs said:]

‘Dear Kṛṣṇa, don't be unfair! We know that You are the respectable son of Nanda and that You are honoured by everyone in Vraja. You are also very dear to us. Please give us back our clothes. We are shivering in the cold water. O Śyāmasundara, we are Your maidservants and must do whatever You say. But give us back our clothing. You know what the religious principles are, and if You don't give us our clothes we will have to tell the king. Please!’

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said:

‘If you girls are actually My maidservants, and if you will really do what I say, then come here with your innocent smiles and let each girl pick out her clothes. If you don't do what I say, I won't give them back to you. And even if the king becomes angry, what can he do?’

Then, shivering from the painful cold, all the young girls rose up out of the water, covering their pubic area with their hands. When the Supreme Lord saw how the gopīs were struck with embarrassment, He was satisfied by their pure loving affection. Putting their clothes on His shoulder, the Lord smiled and spoke to them with affection.

[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:]

‘You girls bathed naked while executing your vow and that is certainly an offense against the demigods. To counteract your sin you should offer obeisances while placing your joined palms above your heads. Then you should take back your lower garments.’

Thus the young girls of Vṛndāvana, considering what Lord Acyuta had told them, accepted that they had suffered a falldown from their vow by bathing naked in the river. But they still desired to successfully complete their vow, and since Lord Kṛṣṇa is Himself the ultimate result of all pious activities, they offered their obeisances to Him to cleanse away all their sins. Seeing them bow down like that, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the son of Devakī, gave them back their garments, feeling compassionate toward them and satisfied by their act. Although the gopīs had been thoroughly cheated, deprived of their modesty, ridiculed and made to act just like toy dolls, and although their clothing had been stolen, they did not feel at all inimical toward Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Rather, they were simply joyful to have this opportunity to associate with their beloved. The gopīs were addicted to associating with their beloved Kṛṣṇa, and thus they became captivated by Him. Thus, even after putting their clothes on they did not move. They simply remained where they were, shyly glancing at Him. The Supreme Lord understood the determination of the gopīs in executing their strict vow. The Lord also knew that the girls desired to touch His lotus feet, and thus Lord Dāmodara, Kṛṣṇa, spoke to them as follows.

[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:]

‘O saintly girls, I understand that your real motive in this austerity has been to worship Me. That intent of yours is approved of by Me, and indeed it must come to pass. The desire of those who fix their minds on Me does not lead to material desire for sense gratification, just as barleycorns burned by the sun and then cooked can no longer grow into new sprouts. Go now, girls, and return to Vraja. Your desire is fulfilled, for in My company you will enjoy the coming nights. After all, this was the purpose of your vow to worship goddess Kātyāyanī, O pure-hearted ones.’

Śukadeva Gosvāmī said:

‘Thus instructed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the young girls, their desire now fulfilled, could bring themselves only with great difficulty to return to the village of Vraja, meditating all the while upon His lotus feet.’”

Regarding yajña-patnī-daraśana—“meeting the wives of the brāhmaṇas,” one should see Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.23.18-32):

“The wives of the brāhmaṇas were always eager to see Kṛṣṇa, for their minds had been enchanted by descriptions of Him. Thus as soon as they heard that He had come, they became very excited. Taking along in large vessels the four kinds of foods, full of fine tastes and aromas, all the ladies went forth to meet their beloved, just as rivers flow toward the sea. Although their husbands, brothers, sons and other relatives tried to forbid them from going, their hope of seeing Kṛṣṇa, cultivated by extensive hearing of His transcendental qualities, won out.

Along the river Yamunā, within a garden decorated with buds of aśoka trees, they caught sight of Him strolling along in the company of the cowherd boys and His elder brother, Balarāma. His complexion was dark blue and His garment golden. Wearing a peacock feather, collared minerals, sprigs of flower buds, and a garland of forest flowers and leaves, He was dressed just like a dramatic dancer. He rested one hand upon the shoulder of a friend and with the other twirled a lotus. Lilies graced His ears, His hair hung down over His cheeks, and His lotus-like face was smiling.

O ruler of men, for a long time those brāhmaṇa ladies had heard about Kṛṣṇa, their beloved, and His glories had become the constant ornaments of their ears. Indeed, their minds were always absorbed in Him. Through the apertures of their eyes they now forced Him to enter within their hearts, and then they embraced Him within for a long time. In this way they finally gave up the pain of separation from Him, just as sages give up the anxiety of false ego by embracing their innermost consciousness. Lord Kṛṣṇa, who witnesses the thoughts of all creatures, understood how those ladies had abandoned all worldly hopes and come there simply to see Him. Thus He addressed them as follows with a smile upon His face.

[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:]

‘Welcome, O most fortunate ladies. Please sit down and make yourselves comfortable.

What can I do for you?

That you have come here to see Me is most appropriate. Certainly expert personalities, who can see their own true interest, render unmotivated and uninterrupted devotional service directly unto Me, for I am most dear to the soul. It is only by contact with the self that one's vital breath, intelligence, mind, friends, body, wife, children, wealth and so on are dear.

Therefore what object can possibly be dearer than one's own self?

You should thus return to the sacrificial arena, because your husbands, the learned brāhmaṇas, are householders and need your assistance to finish their respective sacrifices.’

The wives of the brāhmaṇas replied:

‘O almighty one, please do not speak such cruel words. Rather, You should fulfil Your promise that You always reciprocate with Your devotees in kind. Now that we have attained Your lotus feet, we simply wish to remain here in the forest so we may carry upon our heads the garlands of tulasī leaves You may neglectfully kick away with Your lotus feet.

We are ready to give up all material relationships. Our husbands, fathers, sons, brothers, other relatives and friends will no longer take us back, and how could anyone else be willing to give us shelter?

Therefore, since we have thrown ourselves at Your lotus feet and have no other destination, please, O chastiser of enemies, grant our desire.’

The Supreme Personality of Godhead replied:

‘Rest assured that your husbands will not be inimical toward you, nor will your fathers, brothers, sons, other relatives or the general populace. I will personally advise them of the situation. Indeed, even the demigods will express their approval. For you to remain in My bodily association would certainly not please people in this world, nor would it be the best way for you to increase your love for Me. Rather, you should fix your minds on Me, and very soon you will achieve Me.’”

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