lunes, 9 de enero de 2012

STEADINESS AND TASTE Badger, California - May 16, 2003 (normal)

STEADINESS AND TASTE Badger, California – May 16, 2003

Oṁ viṣṇupāda paramahaṁsa parivrājakācārya aṣṭottara-śata Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja

[One year prior to this class Śrīla Bhaktivedanta Nārāyaṇa Mahārāja went to Badger (New Vraja), and at that time he discussed these same topics of steadiness and taste, as well as the other stages of Bhakti, from the books Śrī Bhajana Rahasya and Śrī Mādhurya Kaḍambinī. This year he added many new insights, as seen from the following transcription. There are several technical Sanskrit terms in this class, which are essential to know in order to advance in Bhakti, but please don't be alarmed. They are all explained, and gradually they will become second nature to you:]

Now we are coming to our subject – Bhakti.

ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-
saṅgo ’tha bhajana-kriyā
tato ’nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt
tato niṣṭhā rucis tataḥ

athāsaktis tato bhāvas
tataḥ premābhyudañcati
sādhakanām ayaṁ premṇaḥ
prādurbhāve bhavet kramaḥ

("In the beginning there must be faith. Then one becomes interested in associating with pure devotees. Thereafter one is initiated by the spiritual master and executes the regulative principles under his orders. Thus one is freed from all unwanted habits and becomes firmly fixed in devotional service. Thereafter, one develops taste and attachment. This is the way of Sādhana-bhakti, the execution of devotional service according to the regulative principles. Gradually emotions intensify, and finally there is an awakening of love. This is the gradual development of love of Godhead for the devotee interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness."
(Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.4.15-16)]

In our class yesterday I very elaborately explained the anarthas (unwanted habits). If you are doing bhajana but are not trying to give up all the various kinds of anarthas, the result will be like zero. Try to give up all offences, such as Seva-aparādha (offences to the deities), Dhāma-aparādha (offences to Kṛṣṇa’s holy pastime places), Vaiṣṇava-aparādha (offences to devotees) and Nama-aparādha (offences to the holy names), as well as all sixteen kinds of anarthas* [see endnote 1].

We have explained about utsāha-mayi (enthusiasm based on false ego), ghana-taralā (sometimes condensed and sometimes diluted interest in devotional activities) and all the other symptoms of unsteady (Aniṣṭhitā) Bhakti* [see endnote 2]. We have also explained about Sukṛti-uttha, (impediments in Bhakti coming from past material pious activities) Bhakti-uttha (impediments in Bhakti coming from materially motivated Bhakti activities) and so on * [see endnote 3].  Try to give up all these anarthas.

First of all try to follow this instruction of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu:

tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā
amāninā mānadena kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ

"Thinking oneself to be even lower and more worthless than the insignificant grass which is trampled beneath the feet of all, being more tolerant than a tree, accepting no honour but offering respect to all others according to their respective positions, one should continuously chant the holy name of Śrī Hari."
(Śrī Śikṣāṣṭakam, verse 3)

I think that the qualities described in this verse are somewhat neglected by devotees. They know and can explain so many topics with reference to śastra (the Vedic scriptures), but their hearts do not touch the subject matter and pure Bhakti does not come to them. Always give proper respect to all Vaiṣṇavas, even if they are kaniṣṭha--adhikārīs, as well as to plants and creepers – because Kṛṣṇa is everywhere. If you do, Bhakti is bound to come in your heart.

We have discussed so much up to Aniṣṭhitā-bhakti. Regarding Niṣṭha-bhakti (steady devotion), it has been stated in Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (1.2.17):

śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
hṛdy antaḥ-stho hy abhadrāṇi
vidhunoti suhṛt satām

"Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Personality of Godhead, who is the Paramātma (Supersoul) in everyone's heart and the benefactor of the truthful devotee, cleanses the desire for material enjoyment from the heart of the devotee who has developed the urge to hear His messages, which are in themselves virtuous when properly heard and chanted."

It is very easy to speak on this subject, but very hard to follow. Speaking alone will not do. Try to follow in a practical sense – not only in theory. Everything will come if you follow even one śloka of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, one payar (Bengali verse) of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, or one śloka written by Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī or Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. For example, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has written:

vāco vegaṁ manasaḥ krodha-vegaṁ
jihvā-vegam udaropastha-vegam
etān vegān yo viṣaheta dhīraḥ
sarvām apīmāṁ pṛthivīṁ sa śiṣyāt

"A sober person who can tolerate the urge to speak, the mind's demands, the actions of anger and the urges of the tongue, belly and genitals is qualified to make disciples all over the world."
(Śrī Upadeśāmṛta, verse 1)

Simply following this verse will suffice. 

Niṣṭha means niścalatā, unwavering; not being like a pendulum but rather being steady or one-pointed. One should be steady in determination, thinking:

"I will do Bhagavad-bhajana (kṛṣṇa-bhajana)."

An example of niṣṭha in bhajana is Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura who vowed:

"I may be cut into thousands of pieces, but I will not give up bhajana (my chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa)."

Regarding the devotee who has niṣṭha in arcana -pūjā (deity worship), his intelligence will be steady in arcana-pūjā.  Regarding Harināma, he will think:

"I must somehow complete my chanting of Harināma."

The Six Gosvāmīs were like this.

saṅkhyā-pūrvaka-nāma-gāna-natibhiḥ kālāvasānī-kṛtau
nidrāhāra-vihārakādi-vijitau cātyanta-dīnau ca yau
rādhā-kṛṣṇa-guṇa-smṛter madhurimānandena sammohitau
vande rūpa-sanātanau raghu-yugau śrī-jīva-gopālakau

"I worship the Six Gosvāmīs, who passed all their time in chanting the holy names, singing songs, and offering daṇḍavat praṇāma, thereby humbly fulfilling their vow to complete a fixed number daily. In this way they utilised their valuable lives and conquered over eating and sleeping. Always seeing themselves as completely worthless, they became enchanted in divine rapture by remembering Śrī Rādhā Kṛṣṇa’s sweet qualities."
(Śrī Ṣaḍ-Gosvāmyaṣṭakam, verse 6)]


“Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī used to chant one lakh (64 rounds) or more of Harināma daily. Sometimes he was not able to complete this, however, because when he used to chant the holy name he would sometimes faint for eight or ten hours.* [See endnote 4]

So how could he complete his chanting?

He was trying, however, to somehow chant at least one lakh. He was also doing daṇḍavat-praṇāma at least one thousand eight times, to Kṛṣṇa, to all the gopīs, to Śrīmatī Rādhika, to Girirāja Govardhana, Bhāṇdīravana and all the other holy places, to all the prominent associates of Kṛṣṇa, and to all the associates of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu like Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara, Śrī Rāya Rāmānanda, Śikhi Māhiti, Mādhavī devī, Puṇḍarīka Vidyānidhi, Paramānanda Purī, Brahmānanda Bhāratī, Īśvara Purīpāda, Mādhavendra Purīpāda, Gopal-guru Gosvāmī and so on. We cannot do even one daṇḍavat-praṇāma to these associates. I think that very few are doing full Sāṣṭānga-pranāma (keeping all the limbs of the body flat on the ground).

Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī only used to drink a very small quantity of buttermilk, and he gave up eating all else. Once a person came and gave him buttermilk in a bigger leaf pot than usual, and he asked:

"From where have these bigger leaves been brought?"

That person replied:


"Oh, Sakhī-sthalī?"

Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī said:

"Go away at once, otherwise I will beat you!"

Why did he act in this way?

He had entered the mood of the gopīs, the mañjarīs. These mañjarīs never want to even hear the name of Sakhī-sthalī, where Śrīmatī Rādhika’s rivals like Candrāvalī, Śaibya, Padma, and others used to stay; where Kṛṣṇa used to go for a moment in order to taste another kind of Bhakti-rasa.

The devotee at the stage of Niṣṭha has so much steady faith in hearing these topics.

Hari-katha śravana is the most prominent limb of Bhakti. First of all you should hear. Do not try so much to make others hear from you. First know, and then speak.

“Atha varṇayed yaḥ”

First hear continuously, and then know, and then you can preach to others.

How can a person who does not know and does not follow all these practices preach? #

If such a person "preaches," that will be karma (fruitive activity) – not Bhakti – and it will have no effect.

There should be Niṣṭha in Guru-seva, and that is the backbone of Bhakti. I have seen, and I have also heard, that some "very near and dear" disciples proclaim that they have Guru-niṣṭha and then later on became against him and want to kill him for worldly gain. We should not be like this. We have come for Bhakti, and we can obtain Bhakti only by the mercy of Guru and pure Vaiṣṇavas. We should try to realise their mano-bhīṣṭaṁ (innermost heart's desire) and try to follow it.

At the time of Śrīla Prabhupāda so many qualified and very learned persons came and went. Especially, those who were materially qualified, beautiful and coming from high families could not actually serve Kṛṣṇa, because they could not be akiñcana (possession-less, or thinking that one's possessions really belong to Kṛṣṇa).

We have come to serve Kṛṣṇa and Gurudeva – not anyone else. We should not follow someone who is engaging in nonsense, whether he is a friend, a father, a mother or even a Guru. We should have very mature niṣṭha in all kinds of anuśīlana (devotional activities performed continually by body and mind, under proper guidance). One in Niṣṭha is buddhi-pūrvaka, performing Bhakti by his intelligence rather than his heart. He may have no taste; but still, thinking by his intelligence, he vows:

"I must do Bhakti."

Such an aspiring devotee does not have so much taste in chanting Harināma and his mind is fickle. He does not want to chant. Still, he will take a whip to his mind, thinking:

"I will give it a lesson. I must chant."

He will force his mind to chant:

Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare

[The assembled devotees begin to chant with Śrīla Nārāyaṇa Mahārāja and then he called out to them: "Louder!" Then he continued with the devotees chanting more loudly:]

Hare Rāma Hare Rāma Rāma Rāma Hare Hare

He will chant more loudly, and then his mind will be controlled. If you softly chant:

"Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa"

The mind may not be controlled. So when your mind is going here and there like a pendulum, chant more loudly. Chant:

"O Kṛṣṇa!

O Rādhe!

O Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

O Nityānanda Prabhu!

Please be merciful!"

Call out in this way, and at the same time continue chanting:

"Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa."

Do you know Dhruva Mahārāja?

He had Niṣṭha. Śrī Nārada Muni told him:

"I am initiating you with this mantra. Remain in any good place, in a favourable place on the banks of Yamunā, near Govardhana, and do what I tell you to do."

When he left, Dhruva went to Madhuvana. First he took bath there in a pond or in Yamunā, and then he sat down and stayed there for six months. For the first month he ate only fruits and berries on every third day. In the second month he ate only every six days, and for his eatables he took dry grass and leaves. In the third month he drank water only every nine days. In the fourth month he inhaled air only, and only on every twelfth day. By the fifth month he had controlled his breathing so perfectly that he was able to stand on only one leg and concentrate his mind fully on Parabrahman.

Although the forest was full of snakes, dangerous animals and biting insects, he was like iron – like a stone. Nārāyaṇa came in his trance and finally came directly in front of him.

Try to be like Dhruva. If your mind does not want to practice, don't care. Practice anyway.

Another example of steadiness is Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura. The Muslim Kasi (Magistrate) wanted him to chant Allah or Hoḍa, but he was chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa. The Kasi told him:

"If you do not change we will cut you in pieces."

He ordered some men to take him through twenty-two markets and beat him, so that all his blood, flesh and so on would fall away and he would die. In general, when they would beat a person in only one market that person would die, but they beat Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura in twenty-two markets and he was still alive and chanting.  He had no flesh and no blood, but he continued to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa. His executioners then prayed to him:

"O Prabhu, please die for us. Otherwise the Kasi will kill us and our families."

Then Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura went into trance, chanting, Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa.  He prayed:

"O Kṛṣṇa, don’t take their offence, because they are obliged to do what they are doing. Please forgive them."

After that they went to the Kasi and told him:

"He is killed now; what should we do?"

The Kasi replied:

"Throw him in Ganges, then he will go to hell. If you put him in a grave he may go to heaven, so don't do so. Throw him in the Ganges."

The Muslim Kasi and his followers always did things opposite to the principles of Sanātana-dharma, and therefore the Kasi did not want to put Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura in a grave, which is what his followers would do with their own people when they died. By Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, therefore, Haridāsa Ṭhākura was put in the Ganges. Then, he at once came out of the Ganges chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, with full body, very beautiful, and very energetic. Bolo Haridāsa Ṭhākura Ki Jaya (All glories to Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura). The Kasi later came to know of this and said:

"That Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura is a demigod. Don’t disturb him anymore."

We should have niṣṭha like Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura and Dhruva Mahārāja.

You know about Śrī Prahlāda Mahārāja. So many problems continually came from his father, but he was never disturbed. He knew that:

"Kṛṣṇa will save me, because I have taken His shelter."

Sudarśana-cakra (the wheel-weapon carried by Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu) was ready to come to cut off the head of Hiraṇyakaśipu. From the beginning of his torturing Prahlāda Mahārāja, but that cakra became Nṛsiṁhadeva who said:

"I should show some vicitra-līla, uniquely variegated pastimes. That is why he played thus. Otherwise, at first glance he would have cut off Hiraṇyakaśipu’s head.

Do you know the history of Ambarīṣa Mahārāja?

He used to practice all the sixty-four kinds of Bhakti with such steadiness that Sudarśana-cakra also came to save him. We should also try to follow him.

If you are in the stage of Niṣṭha and you continue to follow the principles of Bhakti for some time, then, when that Niṣṭha will be perfectly matured, you attain the stage called Ruci.

What are the symptoms of Ruci?

Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura was once going to Ādi-saptagrāma, to the assembly of the father of Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, and on the way he saw a snake-charmer making a snake dance. The snake charmer was singing a song about Kāliya-damana līla, and when Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura heard this song he at once trembled, his eyes became full of tears, and he fainted. He had remembered the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, and at once his heart had melted and he fainted. That snake-charmer then took the foot dust of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura and glorified him.

A very jealous brāhmaṇa was present there and he thought:

"Thousands of people in the audience have taken the foot dust of this Mohammedan – not mine. I am from a brāhmaṇa family, so I must do as he did so that all will come and take my foot dust – including this snake charmer."

Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura left, and when that snake-charmer again began to sing and make the snake dance, the brāhmaṇa came forward and began to tremble, pretend to weep with tears falling from his eyes, and then he fell flat. The snake charmer knew that he had done so for name and fame, so he took his stick and gave him three blows. That brāhmaṇa then ran away from there and never came back.

Haridāsa Ṭhākura’s Ruci was -anapeksini * [See endnote 5], independent. He simply heard and then he fainted. Similarly Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates used to hear "Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa," and they also used to faint.

During the time of Śrīla Prabhupāda Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī Ṭhākura there was a very prominent bābājī named Vaṁśīdāsa bābājī. He had long hair and wore only one loincloth – nothing else. He had no bhajana-kuṭīra at all. Rather, he lived under the shade of a tree as did his two deities, Gaura and Nityānanda, who were always undecorated. Vaṁśīdāsa bābājī used to play with them and sometimes quarrel with Them. He once went to pick some flowers for his worship, and there was a tree nearby with yellow karṇikāra flowers. It was not a very high tree, so he climbed up that tree to pick flowers. In the meantime the son of the proprietor of that land came and said:

 "What nonsense are you doing?

He pushed Vaṁśīdāsa bābājī, who fell down from the tree and became somewhat injured. Vaṁśīdāsa bābājī then went directly to his deities and began to quarrel. He said:

"Oh, Nityānanda is very simple and very good. But this Mahāprabhu is very tricky and very cruel!

I was picking some flowers for Him and He would not save me!

Why did You not save me?

I will not serve You. From now on I will not offer You anything."

And thus he began to quarrel. He was beyond external considerations, and this is called anapeksini. Although his deities were not beautifully dressed, he used to think that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself and Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu were there. Our ruci should be like this.

I know you have so many problems – because you still have no Ruci. You have Aniṣṭhitā-bhakti (unsteady). Sometimes you cannot chant when diseases come, but for those with Ruci there is no consideration of disease at all. Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī were living in the forest where there were so many dangerous animals, but those animals could not bite them or hurt them in any way. On the other hand, we have to taste the reactions of our previous activities, so we cannot be fearless like them. However, by increasing our practice of Bhakti and by service to Gurudeva and pure Vaiṣṇavas, we may become like them.

When this kind of Ruci comes there is no more fear – but up to this stage there is so much fear and at any time you can give up Bhakti. On the other hand, when Ruci will come, taste for Hari-katha, taste for Guru-seva, taste for Nama-kīrtana, taste for anything regarding kṛṣṇa-bhakti, then your life will be successful. There will be hardly any chance of falling. Some chance is there, as shown by Bharata Mahārāja. He had left his kingdom, his wife and his children, and had come to a very sacred place and was chanting and remembering, but he once saw a deer calf and became attracted. Thus, it took him three lives to become perfect.

Always remember these topics and try to be like these pure devotees. I have seen so many devotees, even sannyāsīs and what to speak of gṛhastha bhaktas, who have left their children, wives, and so on, and many are now in our assembly. But I see that they are very attached to children – to take them on their shoulders and to love and kiss them. We should be very careful about this.

Then, when Ruci is matured, at once the stage of Āsakti comes. This is the stage of attachment for Kṛṣṇa. This is a very good stage, and we will explain it another day.

Gaura Premānande.

[*Endnote 1 – (From Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu-bindhu by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura) Anarthas are of four kinds: (1) Svarūpa-bhrama (illusion about spiritual identity), (2) asat-tṛṣṇā (thirst for that which is unreal; that is, material enjoyment), (3) Aparādha (offences) and (4) hṛdaya-daurbalya (weakness of heart).

Svarūpa-bhrama is of four kinds:

(1) Sva-tattva- or Jīva-svarūpa-bhrama (illusion about one's spiritual identity)
(2) Para-tattva-bhrama (illusion about the spiritual identity of the supreme absolute truth)
(3) Sādhya-sādhana-tattva-bhrama (illusion about Sādhana-bhakti, the means of spiritual perfection, and sādhya, the object to be obtained by such sādhana, or in other words prema-bhakti)
(4) Māyā-tattva-bhrama (illusion about the Lord's external energy, Māyā).

Asat-tṛṣṇā is of four types:

(1) Varieties of desires for material enjoyment in this world
(2) Desires for enjoyment in the higher planetary systems of Svargaloka
(3) Desires for the attainment of the eight mystic siddhis.
(4) The desire for impersonal liberation.

Aparādha is of four kinds:

(1) Offences towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa
(2) Offences towards kṛṣṇa-nama
(3) Offences towards kṛṣṇa-svarūpa (the deity form of the Lord)
(4) Offences towards the Jīvas (living entities who are infinitesimal particles of spirit belonging to the Lord).

Hṛdaya-daurbalya is of four kinds:

(1) Tuccha-āsakti (attachment for useless things)
(2) Kūṭī-nāṭī (deceitful behaviour – the word kūṭī-nāṭī may be broken down into the constituent parts kū, bad or evil, and na or nāṭī, that which is forbidden. In that case it would mean doing wicked deeds or doing that which is forbidden)
(3) Mātsarya (envy)
(4) Sva-pratiṣthā-lālasā (desire for one's own fame and prestige).

[*Endnote 2 – (From Mādhurya-kaḍambinī by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura)


A brāhmaṇa child, having just begun study of the scriptures, thinks he has immediately become a learned scholar worthy of everyone's praise. Similarly, a person just beginning devotional service may have the audacity to think that he has mastered everything. This is called Utsāha-mayi, or filled (puffed-up) with enthusiasm.


The same child at times diligently engages in his studies, and yet at other times, due to inability to understand the schoolbooks or lack of real taste, is negligent. In the same way, a new devotee will sometimes practice the different forms of devotional service and at other times neglect them. Being sometimes diligent and at other times negligent, his endeavour is called Ghana-taralā (condensed-dilute, thick-thin).


"Shall I just spend my life happily in family life, making my wife and children Kṛṣṇa conscious and worshipping the Lord?
Or should I give them all up and go to Vṛndāvana to perfect myself by engaging full time in hearing and chanting with no distractions?
Shall I wait till the last stage, after enjoying all sorts of pleasures and I've finally understood that the whole material world is simply a forest fire of affliction?
Or is it better that I renounce right now?

In this way, the mind spends time vacillating between the life of renunciation and household life considering the different options. This is called Vyūḍha-vikalpā, or extensive speculation.


Seeing that material enjoyment is forcibly carrying him away and impairing his steadiness in serving Kṛṣṇa, the devotee resolves to renounce his addictions and take shelter of the holy name. But many times his attempts at renunciation often end in enjoying what he's trying to renounce. This on-going battle with his desires for sense enjoyment from former habit, where he sometimes meets with victory and sometimes with defeat, is called viṣayā-saṅgarā, or struggle with sense pleasure.


Then the devotee will resolve:

"From today I will chant such and such number of rounds of japa and will pay so many obeisances. I'll also perform services for the devotees. I won't talk about anything except the Lord, and I'll give up all association with people who talk gossip."

Though the devotee makes such resolutions every day, he is not always able to carry them out. This is called Niyamākṣamā, or inability to follow rules. Viṣaya-saṅgarā is the inability to give up sense enjoyment, while Niyamākṣamā is the inability to improve his devotional service.


Finally, it is well-known that the very nature of Bhakti is to be attractive, thus many people become attracted to the devotee. And, as the old adage goes:

"By the public's attraction one becomes wealthy."

Bhakti produces much opportunity for material gain, worship, and position (labha, pūjā, pratiṣthā). These are weeds around the creeper of Bhakti. Seeking one's pleasure (raṅga) amidst these weed-like facilities, which are but small waves (taraṅga) in the ocean of Bhakti, is called Taraṅga-raṅgiṇī, delighting in material facilities. 
(Mādhurya kaḍambinī pages 15-18]

[*Endnote 3 – (From Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu-bindhu by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura)

There are four additional varieties of anartha:

(1) duṣkṛti-uttha (arising from past sins)
(2) sukṛti-uttha (arising from previous pious activities)
(3) aparādha-uttha (arising from offences)
(4) bhakti-uttha (arising in relation to bhakti)

(1) Duṣkṛti-uttha:

Anarthas arising from past sinful activities refer to five types of kleśa or distress, which are:

(i) Avidyā (ignorance or forgetfulness of Kṛṣṇa)
(ii) Asmitā (the false egoism arising from the conceptions of “I” and “mine” in relation to the material body
(iii) Rāga (attachment for the objects of sense gratification)
(iv) Dveṣa (hatred or aversion to unpleasant, disagreeable or adverse situations)
(v) dur-abhiniveśa (attachment for or absorption in sinful activities).
(2) Sukṛti-uttha:

Various kinds of material enjoyment arising from the pious activities of one’s previous birth.

(3) Aparādha-uttha:

Suffering arising from nāmāparādha and other types of offences.

(4) Bhakti-uttha:

Desires for lābha (material gain), pūjā (worship) and pratiṣṭhā (prestige) arising from the performance of Sakāma-bhakti or Sopādhika-bhakti (conditional devotional service).

[*Endnote 4 –

“We have many things to learn about bhajana, or worship of the Lord, by following in the footsteps of Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. All the Gosvāmīs engaged in such transcendental activities, as described by Śrīnivāsa Ācārya in his poem about them (kṛṣṇotkīrtana-gāna-nartana-parau premāmṛtāmbho-nidhī). Following in the footsteps of Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana Gosvāmī, one has to execute devotional service very strictly, specifically by chanting the holy name of the Lord.”
(Caitanya-caritāmṛta Ādi 10.100 Śrīla Prabhupāda’s purport)]

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